SIDS vs SUIDI PDF Print E-mail

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STOP SLEEPING WITH YOUR BABY!

DON'T DO THAT TO YOUR CHILD

BACK TO SLEEP

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In 2004, about 4,600 U.S. infants died suddenly of no immediately obvious cause. Nearly half of these sudden unexplained infant deaths (SUID) were attributed to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). SIDS is the 3rd leading cause of infant death in the United States and the 1st leading cause of death among infants aged 1–12 months.

If you or someone you know has experienced the loss of a baby, whether during pregnancy or after birth, please see this Web page from First Candle/SIDS Alliance. *

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Safe Sleep Environment

How can you help your infant sleep and nap safely?

  • Infants should ALWAYS be placed on their backs (face up) when they are resting, sleeping, or left alone.
  • Infants should be placed on their tummies (tummy time) ONLY when they are awake and supervised by someone responsible. Supervised tummy time is encouraged to help make your infant’s neck and back muscles strong.
  • When infants are napping or sleeping they should ONLY be placed in cribs approved by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).
    • Mattresses should ALWAYS fit snugly into the crib’s frame.
    • Cribs made after 1982 and sold in the United States by a retailer should, by law, meet the CPSC safety standards for cribs.
  • If you do not have a crib, your infant can be placed to sleep on another safe, firm sleep surface such as a bassinet, cradle, or co-sleeper that does not have any soft or fluffy items on its sleep surface
  • Infants should ALWAYS be placed on a firm surface or mattress.
  • Dress your infant in a sleeper or warm pajama instead of covering infant with a blanket.
  • If you choose to cover your infant, ALWAYS make sure the blanket stays at or lower than the infant’s waist.
  • ALWAYS dress your infant the way that you would want to be dressed for the temperature around you.
  • Parents or caregivers who choose to share a bed with their infant should NEVER smoke or be under the influence of alcohol or drugs while sleeping with their infant.
  • Parents or caregivers who want to be close to their infant while they are sleeping can move the crib, bassinet, or co-sleeper next to their bed.
  • Safest place for an infant to sleep is in their own crib or other separate safe sleep surface next to the parent or caregiver's bed. 
  • NEVER place your infant on a sofa, couch, pillow, or waterbed.
  • NEVER place your infant to sleep or to nap with any pillows, stuffed toys, bumper pads, comforters, quilts, or sheepskin.
  • NEVER smoke in the same room as an infant or child.
  • NEVER let anybody else smoke in the same room as your infant or child.

References for Safe Sleeping Environments

The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk. American Academy of Pediatrics. Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Pediatrics 2005;116:1245–1255.

Hauck FR, Herman SM, Donovan M, Iyasu S, Merrick MC, Donoghue E et al. Sleep environment and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in an urban population: the Chicago Infant Mortality Study. Pediatrics 2003;111:1207–1214.

Moon RY, Patel KM, Shaefer SJ. Sudden infant death syndrome in child care settings. Pediatrics 2000;106:295–300.

Links to non-Federal organizations found at this site are provided solely as a service to our users. These links do not constitute an endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the Federal Government, and none should be inferred. The CDC is not responsible for the content of the individual organization Web pages found at these links.
 
 

 

Sids - Sudden Infant death Syndrome

 

 

 

What is sids?

Sudden infant death syndrome (sids) is a medical term used to describe the sudden death, during sleep of an apparently health baby under the age of 1 year. SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is only given after careful post mortem investigations fail to reveal alternative reasons. A SIDS diagnosis is only given after after all known and possible causes have been carefully ruled out.

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is not caused by

  • child abuse
  • colds or minor infection
  • choking or vomiting
  • hereditary factors
  • immunization

SIDS claims the lives of 7,000 American babies each year (many more world wide) Although numbers have substantially reduced in recent years these figures are still worrying

Sids can occur in any family - all races and socio economic groups - without warning. Doctors and parents cannot predict that SIDS will occur and most victims appear to be perfectly healthy prior to their deaths .

Co-Sleeping Transition

 

 

 

Establish Good Habits

As a new parent, one of your priorities will be to establish good sleeping habits with your newborn. Your baby needs to learn to sleep on his own; the transition from sleeping with his mother to sleeping by himself takes some time. Of course, as add added bonus, if you get your baby to learn to sleep on his own you will also get some much needed rest yourself. To instill good sleeping habits in your baby, research and try to employ different baby sleep tips: try a lot of things and see what works for you, and don't be afraid to trust your instincts.

Associate bedtime with sleep

Many baby sleep tips center on the idea of establishing routines and associations for your child between nighttime and sleep. The sooner you child begins to associate bedtime with sleep, the more likely he is to be able to go to sleep without a fuss. A period that is often overlooked, however, in establishing day vs. night associations, is the period of "transition" - that is, the one between being awake and falling asleep. Here are some transitioning techniques to try:

Fathering down

Try what is sometimes called "fathering down." Just before placing the baby into bed, the father should cradle the baby in such a way that the baby's head rests on the father neck. The father should then talk gently to the child. Because the male's voice is much deeper than the female's, babies are often more soothed by it, and will fall asleep more easily after being exposed to it for some time.

Wearing down

You can also try what is sometimes referred to as "wearing down." This is effective if your baby has been active throughout the day and is too excited to go to bed easily. All you have to do is place your baby in a sling or carrier - "wear him" in other words - for about half an hour before his bedtime. Simply go about your regular household activities: being close to a parent and slowly rocked about before bedtime will provide your child with an easier transition from being awake to being asleep.

Driving Down

Finally, if you've exhausted other options, you can go for the tried and true method of "driving down." Most parents are probably familiar with this as a last resort: place your baby in the car and drive around for awhile until he falls asleep. This one, while inconvenient, usually works every time, and if you desperately need some sleep it can be a godsend.

Easy into a normal routine

Obviously, you don't want to do things like drive around every night to get your child to sleep. Nor do you want to have to carry him around in a sling. The idea, though, is to start with these more drastic techniques and then slowly ease out of them. Keep in mind what a major transition your baby is going through when he is tiny: he's never slept on his own before. He simply doesn't know how to transition himself from being awake to being asleep. By employing these transition techniques you will be slowly teaching him how to do so, and as they are gradually removed your baby will learn good sleeping habits, which will ensure that both you and your child get a good night's rest.

Sleep through the night

 

 

Stick to a Routine

It can be tempting, when dealing with a newborn, to succumb to the habit of allowing the baby to dictate his or her own sleeping habits entirely. As much as is reasonable, you should try to avoid this, and instead try and establish a routine in which your baby sleeping habits begin to mimic those of the rest of the household.

Be Consistent

Developing a routine for your baby's sleep should follow two different tracts: first, you should be putting your baby to sleep in the same fashion each and every night. A typical routine would involve a feeding and changing, combined with some time for play. You should put your child to sleep at a point where he is tired, but still aware of what's going on. In this way, you establish the precedent that he falls asleep on his own, without you holding him or being in the room. This is crucial to ensuring better sleep habits for him down the road.

Mold your baby's sleeping habits

The second thing is to try and mold your baby's sleep habits. For example, you should discourage extensive napping throughout the day, as that increases the chance that the baby will be unable to sleep throughout the night. In a similar fashion, if he sleeps in too late during the morning hours, you should rouse him.

Be subtle

No parent wants to interfere with their baby's sleeping habits too extensively, and it is natural to want to avoid having to wake your baby up when he is sleeping, or to prevent him from napping when he wishes to do so. There are, however, subtler methods with which to direct your child's sleep patterns. For example, when your baby naps, you should make sure that he does so in a brightly lit room - this ensures that he won't nap for long periods of time, which will affect his nighttime sleep. There tendency amongst parents to make their baby as comfortable as possible when napping, which is, of course, entirely natural. But keep in mind that when you draw the curtains or turn out the light when your baby is napping, you are creating an environment where he is likely to nap for a long time, which isn't really helpful.

In general, you should think of an overall plan to develop sleeping routines for your baby that are in sync with those of the rest of the household. If you do this, you will find that not only your baby, but you yourself, will be getting a good night's rest.

Baby Sleep Tips

 

 

Follow Your Instincts!

It's impossible to list all the different skills you need, and decisions that you have to make, as a new parent. Although you should try to educate yourself and talk to other parents, in most cases the best solution for any questions you may have is to follow your instincts. Parenting is, after all, one of the most natural things in the world. One of the most common and difficult things you'll deal with as the parent of a newborn is in getting your child to sleep well and throughout the night. Often, the process of achieving this seems to be a combination of science, art, and just plain luck. There are many baby sleep tips out there, and many of them are useful, but before you begin researching and applying them, you should develop a realistic and healthy attitude towards sleep. If you don't do this, you risk applying tips in a rigid and scattershot manner, which isn't likely to work.

Every Baby is different

All newborns are, of course, different. Some sleep better than others at a young age, which prompts many parents to trade stories of how "lucky" or "unlucky" they were with a given child. There is, no doubt, a certain amount of mystery to getting a child to sleep well and through the night on his own. Nevertheless, a plethora of baby sleep tips exist intended to speed up the process which your child goes through before sleeping on his own.

Instill healthy sleeping habits

one of the keys to this is understanding that you should be developing a long term goal, in terms of your baby's sleep habits. As much as any parent's short term goal is simply to get their child to go to sleep, so that she can get some sleep herself, you should be thinking of the long term goal of instilling healthy sleep habits in your child. A successful way to implement this goal is to be realistic and flexible. Your child is not going to sleep the same way or in the same manner every night. What you should be trying to do, therefore, is creating an environment that is conducive to sleep, so that your child can slowly learn to fall asleep on his own.

 

 

 

Sudden Unexpected Infant Death Reporting Form

Note: In response to numerous requests, the CDC’s SUID Initiative has created an electronic version of the Sudden Unexplained Infant Death Investigation Reporting Form (SUIDIRF) in Microsoft Access. This application is available for download to your computer and is modifiable based upon your jurisdictional needs. The electronic version contains the primary SUIDIRF as well as ten additional investigative forms. Each form has been designed based on the needs of the different agencies collecting this information. More detailed information is available at the CDC website.

  1. Investigation Data

    This section is completed by the person (e.g., coroner, death scene investigator, law enforcement official, medical examiner) who interviews the witness.
    • Primary residence. Address where the infant was living when he or she died.
    • Incident address. Address where the infant died or where the final injury occurred.
    • Witness. Person who knows some or all of the circumstances surrounding the infant’s death. This may be the person who 1) last placed the infant in or near the area where he or she was found not breathing or breathing with distress, 2) last observed the infant alive, or 3) found the infant not breathing or breathing with distress.
  1. Witness Interview

    This section is completed by the person who interviews the witness.
    • Usual caregiver. The person who took care of the infant more than 50% of the time.
    • Last placed. The last time the infant was put down to sleep or rest (e.g., in a crib).
    • Last known alive (LKA). The last time the infant was observed alive (e.g., time when a parent heard the infant cry).
    • Found. The act of finding the infant not breathing or breathing with distress.
    • Positional support. Item such as a wedge or pillow used to keep an infant on their side or back while sleeping.
    • Wedging. Being caught in a narrow space that causes interference with chest wall movements and normal breathing (e.g., infant wedged between mattress and bed frame).
  1. Infant’s Medical History

    This section is completed by the person investigating the infant’s death. This information may be obtained from the infant’s health care provider, medical record, or caregiver.
    • Metabolic disorder. A disease that affects a person’s ability to use or metabolize food (e.g., Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency).
    • Birth defect. A physical or functional abnormality that the infant had at birth (e.g., spina bifida, congenital heart defect, Down's syndrome).
    • Newborn screen. Tests done at birth to detect certain metabolic disorders.
  1. Infant Dietary History

    This section is completed by the person investigating the infant’s death. The information should be obtained from the person who last fed the infant. If that person is not the person who usually fed the infant, also interview the infant’s usual feeder.

  2. Pregnancy History

    This section is completed by the person who interviews the biological or birth mother or someone who knows her history well (e.g., her health care provider, partner, or mother).  

  3. Incident Scene Investigation

    This section is completed by the person investigating the infant’s death.  

  4. Investigation Summary

    Investigators use this section to describe any concerns they have that are not documented in the preceding sections of the form. Investigators may use the check boxes to indicate when tasks, such as doll reenactment, are completed.

  5. Investigation Diagrams

    Scene Diagram. The investigator indicates the following on the scene diagram:

    • North direction.
    • Windows and doors.
    • Wall lengths and ceiling height.
    • Location of furniture, including infant’s bed or sleep surface.
    • Location of infant’s body when found.
    • Position of other people or animals found near the infant.
    • Location of heating and cooling devices and other objects in room.

    Body Diagram. The investigator indicates the following on the body diagram:

    • Discoloration around face, nose, or mouth.
    • Secretions (drainage or discharge from anywhere on the body).
    • Skin discoloration (livor mortis).
    • Pressure mark areas (pale areas, blanching).
    • Rash or petechiae (small, red blood spots on skin, on membranes, or in eyes).
    • Marks on body (scratches or bruises).
    • Location of medical devices (e.g., breathing tube, gastrostomy feeding tube).
    • Body temperature.
  6. Summary for Pathologist

    This section summarizes all the information collected during the witness interview and during the investigation at the incident or death scene. This section should be completed last by the person investigating the infant’s death.
    • Asphyxia. Condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that can rapidly lead to unconsciousness and death (e.g., compression of infant’s chest because he was wedged into a narrow space or had a person laying on him).
    • Overlying. Situation in which someone or something is placed on or over the infant.
    • Hyperthermia. Life-threatening condition in which the core body temperature is above 40°C (104°F).
    • Hypothermia. Life-threatening condition in which the core body temperature falls below 35°C (95°F).

Using the SUIDI Additional Investigative Forms

Additional investigative forms can be used by death scene investigators to collect information about the circumstances surrounding a sudden unexplained infant death and to document personal contacts and collection of evidence. While these forms can be used in addition to the SUIDI Reporting Form to collect important investigative information, this information is not thought to be essential prior to autopsy.

These forms are designed as a questionnaire. The death scene investigator can read the questions to the person they are interviewing. Most questions can be answered by placing an “x” in the corresponding checkbox or filling in the blank provided. Each of these forms can be used alone, or if desired by the local jurisdiction, they can be used with the SUIDI Reporting Form.

Listed below is the name and purpose of each investigative form and definitions of terms not commonly recognized.

  1. Body Diagram

    Click to download a PDF of the Body Diagram

    This diagram is a larger version of the diagram included in the SUIDI Reporting Form. It can be used in place of the smaller version. The diagram can be used to note bruises, discoloration, and other observations such as the following:
    • Discoloration around face, nose, or mouth.
    • Secretions (e.g., drainage or discharge from anywhere on the body).
    • Skin discoloration (e.g., livor mortis).
    • Pressure mark areas (e.g., pale areas, blanching).
    • Rash or petechiae (e.g., small, red blood spots on skin, on membranes, or in eyes).
    • Marks on body (e.g., scratches or bruises).
    • Location of medical devices (e.g., breathing tube, gastrostomy feeding tube).
    • Body temperature.

  2. EMS Interview

    Click to download a PDF of the EMS Interview Form

    The investigator uses this form to gather information from emergency medical service (EMS) personnel who responded to the scene. It can be used to augment the EMS run sheet if the sheet is not available.

  3. Hospital Interview

    Click to download a PDF of the Hospital Interview Form

    The investigator uses this form to gather information from the hospital emergency department personnel who treated the infant. This form can be used to augment the hospital records. The form can be used to interview hospital personnel if the medical records are not available.

  4. Immunization Record

    Click to download a PDF of the Immunization Record Form

    The investigator uses this form to document all immunizations the infant received since birth. The investigator can get this information from the parent or caregiver’s immunization records or from medical records at the infant’s clinic. To date, there is no evidence supporting an association between immunizations and SIDS.

  5. Infant Exposure History

    Click to download a PDF of the Infant Exposure History Form

    The investigator uses this form to identify all persons who were in contact with the infant in the 24 hours before the infant’s death. This form may be used to document day care contacts or people attending large family or community gatherings.

  6. Informant Contact

    Click to download a PDF of the Informant Contact Form

    The investigator uses this form to track contact information for each person interviewed.

  7. Law Enforcement Interview

    Click to download a PDF of the Law Enforcement Interview Form

    The investigator uses this form to gather information from law enforcement personnel who responded to the scene. This information can be collected from interviews with law enforcement personnel and by reviewing law enforcement reports.

  8. Materials Collection Log

    Click to download a PDF of the Materials Collection Log

    The investigator uses this form to keep a detailed, descriptive list of all items recovered from the incident or death scene.

  9. Nonprofessional Responder Interview

    Click to download a PDF of the Nonprofessional Responder Interview Form

    The investigator uses this form to gather information from the first nonprofessional (e.g., caregiver, neighbor) who responded to the infant at the scene.

  10. Parental Information

    Click to download a PDF of the Parental Information Form

    The investigator uses this form to gather contact information about the infant’s mother, father, and other primary caregivers.

  11. Primary Residence Investigation

    Click to download a PDF of the Primary Residence Investigation Form

    The investigator uses this form to describe the infant’s primary residence if the incident or death did NOT occur at the primary residence.

  12. Scene Diagram

    Click to download a PDF of the Scene Diagram

    The investigator uses this form to diagram multiple scenes or when a larger diagram is needed to document the scene. This form is used to document the immediate area surrounding the infant when the infant was discovered dead, unresponsive, or in distress. The investigator uses the form to record observations, such as the following:
    • North direction.
    • Windows and doors.
    • Wall lengths and ceiling height.
    • Location of furniture, including infant’s bed or sleep surface.
    • Location of infant’s body when found.
    • Position of other people or animals found near the infant.
    • Location of heating and cooling devices and other objects in room.

These documents are provided courtesy of the CDC. Their site can be found at http://www.cdc.gov/sids/